Indentifying the Role of the Community College Deanmanagers of academic affairs. What is the dean's role in the community college environment and how can they fulfill their obligations? This Digest focuses on ... These change models describe the dean as playing a unique leadership role within the institution; they must handle complexities, attempt to initiate change, and remain focused on the student

http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/ERIC/digests/dig0005.html

Between 1903 and 2003 7,000 students graduated from Southern College of Pharmacy and the majority entered pharmacy professions most became retail or hospital pharmacists, others worked for pharmaceutical companies, taught pharmacy, and in recent years joined managed care facilities, or pursued careers relating to pharmacy computer systems. While many of these graduates remained in Georgia in 2003 were working in every state in the union and x other countries.

Told from the perspective of the deans

It is likely that Hansell Crenshaw viewed SCP as a career opportunity and an investment. As Crenshaw bequeathed no documents regarding his motives to the institution he founded, so his motivation remains a mystery. There was already a pharmacy school in Atlanta. The Atlanta Medical College, chartered in 1855, included the authority to operate a pharmacy college. Under this charter, George Frederick Payne, a graduate of the New York College of Pharmacy enrolled students in 1891, graduating a class of 4 the next spring. Reuben Columbus Hood, first pharmacy professor of SCP, and dean from 1912 to 1950 , was one of these graduates.

There was some prejudice among pharmacists for a school operated as a unit of a medical school. Pharmacists of Georgia had organized to pass a pharmacy law in 187 to replace the 1825 medical practice act that

His goal may very well have been to start a stock company, operate a successful business and in a reasonable length of time cash in his investment for a profit. Crenshaw was acquainted with proprietary education from both his father and stepmother's experience. Hansell's father William Crenshaw ( 18x - 1921) and his uncle Thomas Crenshaw were among the first Georgian's to attend the country's first dental school, the . The world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery (BCDS), which was chartered by an act of the Maryland General Assembly in 1840. Crenshaws set up practice in Atlanta Georgia and were faculty members of first the Southern Dental College, and later the Atlanta Dental College In 1887, the Southern Dental College was established in Atlanta as a department of the Southern Medical College with Crenshaw a member of the first faculty. Six years later, in 1893, when Hansell Crenshaw was 16 years old, the Atlanta Dental College, a completely independent dental school, was founded with William Crenshaw was dean, x…. and x…until it merged with the Southen Dental College in 1917.

When William Crenshaw married Alice Cox, daughter of the owner of Cox College, a progressive women's college, relocated from LaGrange Georgia in 1894 to suburban Atlanta, and moved his son and three daughters to College Park, Hansell would have learned more about the operation of a privately owned college. It was also his opportunity to meet Edgar Everhart, a chemistry professor at the University of Texas who had moved to Atlanta the year of the college's relocation, to teach chemistry to the young women.

Crenshaw was a stockholder for 10 years and the president then dean for 8. If tuition were x and expenses x for rent, supplies, faculty fees, then the income for the company by 1913 could have been.... Aldredge, the first historian, who had worked with Hood for 20 years when he wrote the history, stated that Crenshaw sold his stock in order to invest in a new hospital.

Everhart - chemistry Hood - pharmacy Niles - materia medica Smith - botany added Madison Bell - law would teach physiology himself

Crenshaw, doubtless following the example of his dental college father, William Crenshaw, used an effective formula. He hired outstanding faculty members but no full time teachers. All had other incomes. Crenshaw himself continued teaching at other schools after the school was launched, including the Atlanta College of Dentistry.

AJ Ap23,1904 p. 4 photo composite

In earlier years needed a charter from the state, as the PA, NY, and Kentucky schools had. Now Georgia only required a charter from the county.

Fulton County, stock company...to confer PhG, PhC, PhD. Advanced education contemplated and for some years the catalog offered this.

Ceremonial Board of Trustess

Southern College of Pharmacy was a Progressive Era creation, founded at the ebb tide New South reforms. Orator John Temple Graves who had spoken such memorable words at Henry Grady's funeral x years before, now gave the inaugural address for a college that a century later could boast over 7,000 graduates most of whom dedicated their lives to the pharmaceutical needs of the region

of the Southern Pharmaceutical Journal, which had offices nearby.

The windows were probably open at the Grant Building where the trustees assembled. Georgia could be hot in the fall. Into the window would have come the clanging of streetcar bells for the electric cars that had brought many students to class. From several blocks away came the whistle of trains. x trains passed thorugh the city daily, and some may locals may have transported students from small towns just outside the city. In his subsequent issue of the Southern Drug Journal editor commented that this was an important fall for pharmacy education Georgia. Three schools were opening Former govenor Northen had a few weeks earlier attended the opening ceremonies for a new pharmacy program at Mercer University in Macon, delayed for a year while the university completed its science building. That May the University of Georgia trustees, after some years of petitions from the Georgia Pharmaceutical Association, agreed to start a school, but delayed until 1905 and did not graduate a class until 1908

The catalog stated that the trustees met annually. What influence the had on the founders cannot be know from available records. Henry Slack could have offered sound council. The Lagrange physicia nvDr. Slack was born in Louisiana 7 May 1862. He moved to LaGrange with his parents in 1880 and went to work in Dr. Bradfield's pharmacy and married the proprieter's daughter. In 1885, he received a degree from the Maryland College of Pharmacy.. Slack received his degree from the Atlanta Medical Medicine in 1891where he may well have met Hood who was also studying there in the pharmacy division. The Cox family had developed close ties to the Slacks when Cox operated the Southern Female College there. C.C. Cox died in the Slack sanitorium and was in 1905???? Mrs. Henry R. Slack Collection 1889-1965 Manuscript Collection No. 10 http://www.lgc.peachnet.edu/archives/ms010.htm

The temperature was an unseasonable x degrees that October Wednesday, as 30 students, x faculty members, the honorary Board of Trustees, and several journalists gathered in tn x storey Grant Building for inagural ceremonies. X years ago dignitaires of the x and x railroad had gathered 5 blocks away to drive a stake making the intersection of the x and x railroads, around which the town of Terminus, then Marthasville, finnaly Atlanta grew. X years earlier Union soliders tred Broad Street after burning half the city and evacuating the civilian population. Atlanta was the Southeast's distribution, financial, and transporation hub, and Southern College of Pharmacy stood in Atlanta's center. Nearby x trains passed through daily, drug wholesales houses sent their wares and salesmen over the entire South. Outsiders and natives thought of Atlanta as brash, in a hurry, possibly money grubbing, and on the move.

Most of the students had probably been recruited by word of mouth from among the apprentices of the cities 60 drug stores, or from drug wholesalers representatives who traveled the southeast. The Atlanta Journal advertising was probably more specifically directed at potential women students who might not have thought of becoming pharmacists

Two months before this brief ceremony young men and women looking for work would have learned of the new college, probably without realizing they were reading about an opportunity to pay a substantial tuition to study from textbooks common in medical schools, to participate in 3 hours of weekly quiz sessions, and stand an intensive monthly examination.

Wanted, a young lady to study pharmacy Wanted, a young man to learn the drug trade

Building...not clear. Grant Building, smaller building on S Broad (City Directory) or Atlanta G Light bld. In any case on Broad St.

The diploma only required 2 sessions of x months each, but would not be conferred until the student presented 3 years practical experience. The city's city licenced pharmacies offered places for the students. The school week was Monday throught Saturday so a junior and senior student could share a job. Local pharmacists were the first source of financial aid for students.

Successful recruiting - 27 men, 3 women

Were there initially 1 or 2 sessions ? Archibald Smith, Freeman and x other graduated April 1904

The catalog stated that it would be a modest event to save the students the expense of the more elaborate theater productions Atlanta's professional school graduations had now become. Yet there was a program, recognition in the program of class officers, and an official photograph.

Twenty-six year old President Hansell Crenshaw had put into operation the kind of school all other pharmacy associations, medical schools, and universities had taken countless months, committee meetings, buracracutic manuveorings to bring to an openind day such as this.

Adds now gave Crenshaw's address

2 sessions running beginning April - October and an October 1904 graduating class

The PhG was the only degree conferred that year and would remain so with one or two exceptions until the degree name changed in 1934. How had the founders arrived at the designation ? The charter authorized the stockholder corporation to confer the PhG,PhC, and PharD degrees. The PhG stood for "graduate in pharmacy", a term begun by the country's first pharmacy school, as the charter the state of Pennsylania gave the school to the members of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, did not include the authority to award a degree. The University of Michigan first conferred the PhC, Pharamceutical Chemist in 1867, breaking with the precedent set by PCP and extended to later association schools in NYC, Boston, Louisville, Cincinnati and St. Louis. The National College of Pharmacy in Washington DC, and the shortlived Tennessee College of Pharmacy broke with the older standard to confer the PD. By 1895 PCP had abandoned the PhG in favor of the PD for a degree that included experience, and the PhC for those who finished the coursework but had not experience. In 1894 James Hartley Beal of Scio College surveyed the schools on behalf of the AphA committee on education and legislation to see if any uniforminty existed. Not only were pharmacy school degrees unstandardized, by 1903 the variation was even greater.

Everhart and Bell stopped teaching and some adjustments had to be made.

Crenshaw himself started teaching chemistry.

The next spring graduation was not limited to a classroom. Atlantan were accustomed to elaborate graduations and the students would not be denied. That sprin SCP's graduation was second to none.. The graduation program recognized the student president, vice president, and treeasurer the 3 quismasters, and commitees for a pin, graaduation music. There were official student ushers.

The Crenshaws were involved in starting the ASM in 1905.Crenshaw taught the first medical students and his father was on theTrustees and made available the Masonic Annuity building for the first year the ASM operated.

The ACPS was building a new building, partially funded by Carnegie in 1906. Carnegie himself was in Atlanta for the cornerstone laying ceremony, accompanied by Vice president Taft,. The ACPS new building included the ACP and had an operating pharmacy from which prescriptions for the ambulatory indigent clinic were filled.

Facilities for the ASM clinic and pharmacy appear very similar.

In 1906 both medical and pharmacy students moved into the Luckie St. building, a few doors from the Tabernacle Infirmary and nursing school. Pharmacy students left an office building environent for a school with classrooms, chemistry and pharmacy laboratories, library, and apothecary. There were beds in the basement for a small group of patiets and a surgical ampitheater to the rear.

Dean Jones, nephew of the formed ACPS dean, Kendrick, had recently returned from postgraduate study at Johns Hopkins. Jones and H Crenshaw had both graduated from ACPC with the 1900 class. Jones had attended ACPC as amature student and already published an anatomy textbook.

1906 was a momentous year for pharmacy for two reasons. The first was therapeutic, the second clinical.

A succession of physicians taught "materia medica". In 1903 there were relatively few truly effective therapeutic agents. The narcotics, digitalis, quinine, addressed specific conditions. Through a class called serum therapy, taught by the man who opened an Atlana clinic to provided the benfits of the rabies vaccing to Georgians, James Brawner, students studied what would become known as immunotherapy. However truly effective drugs did become available, begggin with Salvarsan for syphillis in 1910. This drug launched the German pharmaceutical industry,

Pure Food and Drug Law, but did not turn pharmacists into chemists In 1906 Congrees passed one of the defining pieces of legislation of the Progressive Era, the PF and D law. Many pharmacy leaders believed that the law would insure the professionalization of the pharmacist in a period when drugs, benefitting from the techonology available in large manufacturing companies and improved railroad distribution systems, were making the pharmacist's compounding skill obsolete. The pharmacist might become the chemist who guaranteed the purity of the drugs. However, there was no need for the "chemist on the corner" as the leaders' asprirations was labeled. The manufacturers themselves could insure the purity of the drug and the government oculd inspect and regulate the manufacturer's operation.

In 1907/08 there must have been some remodeling, because theACD places the pharmacy school at the MA nuity buildingl

The curriculum was now expanding. Brawner, who had lived at the same boarding house as Hood before they were married, who shared a common developing interest in psychiatry with Crenshaw, was operating the state's only rabies clinic. He began teaching serum therapy to the pharmacy students. O.L, SCP's first female facultymember began teaching Latin, and x began a commrecial course.

There was sitll no high school requirement for entrance, and the time To graduation remained two 6 month sessions.

Cuban students began enrolling. When they returned to Cuba their PhG was transformed to a Phar D, comparable to the degree at the University of Cuba college of pharmacy. They did not all practice pharmacy. Arnez, on returning to Cuba was shortly elected mayor of his town and was instrumental in starting public health works.

Freeman, a member of the first graduating class, and 1905/06 president of the Ga Ph Assn, joined the administration. Crenshaw changed his title from president to dean, and with Freeman as secretary and Hood as treasurer, a formal administration emerged. One of Crenshaw's sisters worked at the ADC and later a graduate remarked that the Crenshaw sisters always seemed to be about taking care of administrative matters.

The pharmacy schools had organized in the interest of standardizing the enerance requirements and degree in 1900. A representative from the NY State Depart of Education, Taylor, was more concerned with Standardizing the subject matter itself. With 3 organizaitons cooperating, the APhA, NABP, and ACPF, Taylor, after 4 years work was able to publish the First NPS. It was the same organizational arrangement that would emerge as the first accrediting agency.

By 1910, how did SCP's curriculum compare to this curriculum ?

The 1910 curriculum coincided with the new revision of the USP and Remington's Practice of Pharamcy

In January 1909 Flexner visited the Luckie Street building to examine the school's enerance requirements, facilities, and count the number of full time faculty.

TheAMA Council on Education was already setting standards, working with the examining boards and planing to substantially improve medical education inthe UnitedThe AMA Council's 'Ideal Standard' of 1905

In 1905 the newly established Council on Medical Education adopted the following statementregarding an 'ideal standard' for American medical colleges based on the programs of the betterschools in England, Germany and France: [42]

It is useful to review these standards for they are simlar to those that would become the goal of pharmacy education. It is also interesting to observe how

a. Preliminary education sufficient to enable the candidate to enter our recognized universities, the passing upon such qualifications by the state authorities. (Note: This is equivalent to accepting a high school diploma as the minimum standard for admission to medical school.)

b. A five year medical course, the first year of which should be devoted to physics, chemistry and biology, and such arrangements should be made that this year could be taken either in a school of liberal arts or in the medical school. Of the four years in pure medical work, the first two should be spent in laboratories of anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, etc., and the last two in close contact with patients in dispensaries and hospitals in the study of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and the specialties.

c. A sixth year as an interne in a hospital or dispensary should then complete the medical course.

It is believed that it will require about two years to secure the general adoption of these requirements by state boards and medical schools; and we, therefore, recommend that the effort be made to make these requirements effective by 1 January 1908.

At the same time it would reduce the number of physicians.

The number of medical colleges certainly had expanded quickly. In fact the number had more than doubled in 36 years

1870 50 1880 100 1890 133 1900 160 1906 162

physicians. The result would be that ASM would merge with the ACPS to become, in 1915 the School of Medicine of Emory University.

Crenshaw's interests were broad. He was an accomplished violinist, a published short writer, and was increasingly absorbed with the new discipline of psychiatry.

At this juncture SCP might have passed to the state. Penciled in was SCP added to a proposal for the ASM, the ADC and SCP to become a medical center in Atlanta for the University of Georgia.

In 1911 Hood assumed the deanship and was listed as dean in the 1912 catalog.

Hood had been managing the Hood and Roberts Pharmacy on Marietta St. since, and continued the practice of pharmacy. The deanship became his primary role, as it had for a time been Crenshaw's.

In 1912, the ASM enrollment was dangeroulsy low. A 1911 attempt to have the ASM, the ACD, and SCP become an Atlanta medical education center for the Un iversity of Georgia had failed. There was space for the ASM students in the ACPS building as the ACP had separated from the medical school after almost 2 decades, all under Dean Payne, and moved into quarters on ....

In 1913 the ASM ceased operating and transferred students and faculty to theACPS

Crenshaw resigned the same year.

During the 10 years of his administration x men and x women graduated with the PhG. They represented x states and x other countries.

Hood's objectives were initially were to survive. He needed to find another building, consolidate a faculty, and survive first WWI and the large postwar enrollment

While not at the forefront of the movement ot move to a BS degree with a curriculum founded more on the hunanities and sciences, than the professioal practice of pharmacy, Hood made gradual changes.

Hood's first challenge was to find affordable accommodations. His competitor the Atlanta College of Pharmacy was comfortable housed in its own building

The move from Luckie St to Walton St only 1 block coser to the railroad tracks took sCP from one of the SE most advanced medical centers to the hub of its move distribution industry. For some time now Walton St had been known as 'film row.'

http://www.skyhighpictureshow.com/clevelanddrivein.htm Later, three general stores competed, and business hummed at everything from an art-glass firm to a Western Union office. Reels for Atlanta's movie houses were distributed from 'Film Row' here. http://www.s-t.com/daily/07-96/07-14-96/m11wn202.

New students and fauclty were limited to 2 rooms opposite a rope compajy a x,x,x the Moore Building. Hood turned his Marietta St. pharmacy over to others, relocated to the Candler Building, where Crenshaw had already taken offices.

Mercer had closed its pharmacy school,but its dean would not stop teaching. A second proprietary pharmacy school began operation in the postwar period. .Mercer's third and last dean Albert Struby, opened a proprietary school in upstairs office building rooms in downtown Macon and would continue teaching until 1927. Such later SCP alumni as Taylor and Elearnor Law would attest to the strength of Struby program where their pharmacists fathers graduated. The art of pharamcy learned by the fathers from Kentuckian Struby laid a solid basis for independent community pharmacy ownership and inspired them to encourage their children to study pharamcy. In some respects Stuby would prove a recruiter for later Mercer students, and when the merger occurred years later, his portrait transferred to the Atlanta campus.

In 1920 the Marlborough apartments were converted into the doctors uilding in which Hooed set up an admissions office . Crawford Long Hospital, a proprietary hospital was a few blocks away.

By 1924 classes had begun in the Pine St. building, specifically designed, according to Aldredge who was there, for the pharmacy school needs

But competition for students was beginning to threaten enrollements. In 1923 the University of Florida in Gainesville offered its citizens a state supported College of Pharmacy offering the PhG, PhC and BS degrees. Two years later it became a full professional schools, joined the AACP, and received state funding for a new building. Shortly thereafter it began to offer the MS degree. By 1930 it received a charter for the Rho Chi society and began the PhD program from which SCP faculty would graduate after WWII

http://www.cop.ufl.edu/studaff/SFbook.pdf

The University of Florida, located in a sister state was now a strong competitor.

http://www.cop.ufl.edu/studaff/SFbook.pdf

Until 1932 Hood was able to operate SCP without interferance from outside controllers. Accrediting agencies had long since constrained other professional schools, colleges, and even secondary schools. Pharmacy educators had struggled with a means of setting up a control system beginning in 187, with the shortlived x, through the recent three decade history of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, which attempeted thorugh its membership requirement alone to set a national standard. It was not enough. Only through the powers of the reciprocation process, managed by the Naitonal Association of Boards of Pharmacy, could a standard enterance requirements, curriculum, and years to graduation be enforced.

When the AACP had tried to enforce a standard the 5 New York schools were not able to enforce, because of the NSDEd refusal to adhere to the system, all five schools, enrolling a high percentage of the country's pharmacy students, withdrew from the AACP, not to return for a decade. However, the NABP's executive director, Christiansen began touring the country, visiitn legislatures and pharmacy associations promoting prerequisite legislation. By 1931 Georgia was one of only x states not requiring a diploma for licensure.

1932 when Christensen himself was AACP president and collesgues Dumez and Fichelis, both in favor of the higher standard at the heads of the NABP and the AACP, the three men could formed a committee that would lead to pharmacy education's first accreditation organization. There was no money for the work. Dumez, University of Maryland College of Pharmacy dean who had advised the Phillipine government on a similar program x years earlier, managed the process from his Baltimore office, and the NABP offices would in time become the permanent office.

Many colleges were in desperate financial straits with the onset of the depression. Some university colleges were threatened with demotion from separate profesisonal school to departments of other schools. By 1932 owners Martin and Hood may have found themselves in similar difficulties. Classroom space was already rented to the G Colleg eof Podiatry, which had a short existence. Enrollments were falling. The Hoods themselves changed addresses almost annual during these trying times. Martin had long sense returned to public school employment.

Two things occureed in 1931 and 1932 thar resolved both issues for SCP. First George Sparks, the ever enterprising head of the GA TEch Evneing School of Commerce arragned to move the school from rented quarters Into its own building at the end of Walton's "film row" into what had been until six years early the quaratersf for the Sheltering Arms Day Nusery.

The president of Campbell Coal Company, many of whose employees Attended the evening school, backed financing to remodel the building to make it suitable for adult students. Sparks incorporated a resturant on the floor level to help support the school and also provide eveing students supper between work and classes.

Offering its classes in the daytime, the pharmacy school made an ideal tenant.

In 1934 SCP eliminated the PhG to offer only the four year BS in Pharamcy. The University of Georgia had taken this step in 1926, claiming it was the first college in the country to eliminate the short term program, but SCP was not far behind such institutions as the U of Florida which did not take this step until 1933.

The trustees immediately turned their attention to accreditation. SCP had had intermittident libraries, first with ASM, later with access to anew library at the evening college. The Carnegie Libary of Atlanta was located a short walk away. However, the city's only medical library was the growing collection at the Emory University School ofMedicine located some distance away.

The AphA meeting was an opportunity for the Trustees and faculty to demonstrate the quality of the school before a national audience. All eyes were on Atlanta that year. When Sparks hosted the convention of evening schools a bevy of his women students welcomed the delegates at the station in hoopskirted antebellum gowns. SCP welcomed Aph A members with the only student chapter with 100 % membership.

The Trustees sought to employ a PhD with a degree from an approved pharmacy school graduate program, but there were few graduates available. Then Minnie Meyer came to the AphA meeting in Atlanta. Gone with the Wind was on everyone's mind. The flambouant Sparks had welcomed the X…..members to Atlanta meeting sending women students in hoop skirts. The Biltmore Hotel with the suggestion of plantation house colums on the back veranda overlooking the swimming pool was appealing. The SCP students stood out as the only student chapter with 100 % membership.

Meyer, 44 years,. had been a student under Kremers of the University of Wisconsin as had Dumez, head of the accrediting body. While his degree had brought him to a deanship, she had remained at the U of Wisconsin as librarian until she could secure an assistant professorship at Washington State University College of Pharmacy. Wisconsin must have been impressed. The Trustees certainly believed that Dr. Meyer could set them on a firmer road to accreditation. Hood, Martin, and Aldredge lacked the PhD deemed appropriate by the ACPE. Many other pharmacy schools in the country, such as the Louisville College of Pharamcy were competing for the small supply of PhDs in pharmacy that had graduated since the Universtiy of Wisconsin and were now graduating from the University of Maryland. . Many of these graduates had moved into industry rather than pursue the less renumerative academic careers.

She returned to move in to the Atlantan hotel, where on her few steps over to Walton St. she might pass her students emerging from their YMCA quarters. For the next 21 years "pass to the board" resounded intheclassroom as Dr. Meyer stepped away from the lecture podium to engage students in a direct learning experience, working out a problem before the class on a blackboard.

The history of the War years are recounted in the pages of the Southeastern Drug Journal to which Evelyn Peacock and her classmates contributed regularly.

E